Renewable Energy Sources Research Papers

 

research paper on renewable energy

Mar 29,  · Useful sample research proposal about Renewable Energy online. Free research proposal paper example on Renewable Energy for PhD and Master's degree. Read tips how to write a good research project. The sources of renewable energy which could serve as an alternative source of power include wind, solar, and biogas. These can also be combined together as an entity to form a hybrid renewable energy source. In this paper, a solar tree was designed and constructed to provide an alternative supply of electricity to farm settlements in Nigeria. The International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER) is not a for profit organisation. IJRER is a quarterly published, open source journal and operates an online submission with the peer review system allowing authors to submit articles online and track their progress via its web interface.


Renewable Energy Research Papers - niudgets.gq


The alternative energy field represents a unique case for studying the trends regarding the political economy of intellectual property IP in an emerging market. Some of the technology can be considered mature; however many are the barriers - technical, socio-cultural, political or related to funding - that justify a young market in many countries. The intention is to map the degree to which open and commons-based practices are being used compared to proprietary approaches. Benkler, who asserts: commons are a particular type of institutional arrangement for governing the use and disposition of resources.

Their salient characteristic, which defines them in contradistinction to property, is that no single person has exclusive control over the use and disposition of any particular resource. Commons can be divided into four types based on two parameters: The first parameter is whether they are open to anyone or only to a defined group.

The second parameter is whether a commons system is regulated or unregulated. Practically all well studied limited common property regimes are regulated by more or less elaborate rules - some formal, some social-conventional - governing the use of the resources. Open commons, on the other hand, vary widely. Benkler,research paper on renewable energy, 6. We began our research with the intention of limiting our scope to the US only, research paper on renewable energy, but given the global scope of the alternative energy market, and the fact that almost all the market leading companies have grown in foreign countries where the markets for this technology have been biggest and which can be considered historical centers of technology innovation, we chose to include Germany, Denmark, and Spain.

Among the countries considered emerging economies, we decided to look at China for the geopolitical implications relating to its relationship with the United States. We did not look into other developing countries, however, these will be briefly research paper on renewable energy under the section related to international negotiations around climate change. Under this context, research paper on renewable energy, developing countries will appear as actors asking for technology transfer and technology cooperation models, under the justifications of the need for energy to fuel industrial growth and universal access to electricity.

The European countries represent three of the biggest markets for wind and solar technology, and are home to some of the biggest companies producing the technology.

We also decided to broaden the scope of the research by exploring the development of governmental policies for alternative energy technology development and innovation as they relate to the global debates about appropriate governmental responses to Climate Change. Thus, our goal is to follow the alternative energy market and identify the levels of openness and closedness in the areas where innovations are happening, dialoguing with a bibliography that covers the political economy of intellectual property and how intellectual property impacts innovation.

We will also be looking for the presence of commons-based arrangements of knowledge production within the alternative energy innovation process to determine if they appear, and if so, where and how they appear. The maturity can be measured both by the stage of development of the technology and the stage of development of the market.

For instance, wind is considered a mature technology because it is fairly well understood, and the cost of generating electricity with wind turbines is closer to the cost of conventional sources of fossil fuel generated electricity see Figure 10 - though it is still more expensive, research paper on renewable energy.

Only a few small projects around the world - such as a tidal barrage, which was constructed at La Rance in Brittany, France in the s Bryden- are generating consumer electricity.

We go into more detail on the maturity of these technologies in Section 1. These technologies are a subset of the many alternative energy technologies that exist, and they are all representative of energy supply technologies, meaning they are focused on bringing energy to a point research paper on renewable energy final use. These technologies are concerned with the most efficient use of the supplied energy. Examples are home appliances, automobiles, and light bulbs.

Figure 1 provides descriptions. These energy supply technologies should not be confused with their close relatives listed below, which are not part of our research:. We excluded these technologies because they are less common than the energy supply technologies we are researching, and because energy supply technologies can have a bigger impact on reducing global carbon emissions by reducing the use of coal for electricity generation.

It is important to note that the term "alternative" energy sources is a contemporary moniker that stems from the fact that these energy technologies are alternatives to the mainstream energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear fission. The oil crisis spurred the first global push for these alternative energy sources as high petroleum prices threatened research paper on renewable energy world's and more specifically the developed world and the United States in particular access to cheap and plentiful sources of energy, research paper on renewable energy.

Soon after the embargo began the stock market crash followed, which had debatable links to the embargo, but nonetheless influenced governments in their attempts to address their energy supply security concerns.

The affected countries responded to the oil crisis by exploring policy and investment strategies to reduce their dependence on the Middle East for their oil, and alternative energy technologies secured a prominent role in these reactions. In the United States, the presidency of democrat Jimmy Carter marked a period of significant investment in alternative energy sources as well as the introduction of government policies that supported the development and research paper on renewable energy of these technologies.

Wind was used to power sailboats up to 5, years ago, and there is evidence of windmills for mechanical work in India 2, years ago. Sorenson8 Solar energy is the basis of most energy on earth, including the energy in plants from photosynthesis, solar thermal heating, the fossil remains of organic material in oil and coal, and wind, which is created when air, heated by the sun, rises and cold air from another area moves into that space.

CarlinUsing moving water for power can be traced back to BC. Sorenson8. Wind turbines for electrical generation were first developed simultaneously in the US and Scotland around Charles Brush was an American inventor who developed an electric arc light system in his home laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio.

In order to test the lights he needed his own dedicated source of electricity, so he built a 60 foot wind turbine with an electric generator in it and wired it to a collection of batteries to store the energy. This wind turbine successfully powered his lab for 15 years.

While Brush filed many patents for his lighting systems, he never patented his wind turbine. Righter52 The true reason for this is unknown, but some historians have theorized that Brush didn't see a market for wind turbines in Cleveland where the wind was inconsistent on the whole, or perhaps, as the article in Scientific American about his personal wind turbine stated, the capital cost and operations and maintenance costs were too high to make the technology marketable.

Righter53 While Brush is credited with the first research paper on renewable energy wind turbine, a Danish inventor named Poul La Cour was concurrently inventing commercial scale turbines. Pasqueletti Soon afterward, both Germany and the UK started to experiment with wind electricity and install their own turbines. Meanwhile in the US, some small companies were marketing small turbines for electrical generation on rural farms, but the development and adoption of the technology did not match Europe.

The Rural Electrification Act was passed that year, which was tasked with connecting rural areas to the electrical grid. It was so successful that every US electric wind turbine manufacturer had closed its doors by In Denmark during this same period, wind power was spreading throughout the rural areas providing off-grid electricity. Ina Danish engineer named Johannes Juul began testing a prototype wind turbine for a Danish utility.

The design used some technological elements from the earlier designs of F. Juul ultimately built a three-bladed wind turbine that was installed at Gedser, Denmark in The design is now referred to as the "Danish concept," which is defined as "a horizontal axis, three-bladed rotor, an upwind orientation, and an active yaw system to keep the rotor oriented into the wind.

Denmark shipped thousands of wind turbines to California between andand after the market in California crashed, Denmark started selling thousands more to Germany. Research was also conducted at Sandia National Laboratories in California. The wind technology market shows a high degree of consolidation with a small group of companies controlling the majority of the market for large commercial scale wind turbines see Figure 7 later in the paper.

Patent battles have been common, with GE, the largest US manufacturer of wind technology, asserting their patents aggressively in an attempt to keep other companies out of the US market. To date they successfully kept Germany's Enercon out of the market based on a patent infringement case for their variable speed wind turbine technology. They are currently suing Mitsubishi for patent infringement of the same variable speed turbine technology. Lee et. The market for wind turbine components is quite competitive.

Various original equipment manufacturers OEM's may produce wind turbine blades, gearboxes, generators, bearings, towers, and electronic control equipment. This leads to a complicated interconnected market with lots of potential for new innovation in these various parts. Lako Modern wind turbines are research paper on renewable energy with research paper on renewable energy rotors with diameters of 70 to 80 meters mounted on top of towers with 60 to 80 meter heights.

A typical turbine in the United States in produces more than 1. The power output of the turbine is controlled by rotating the rotor blades to change the angle of the wind hitting the blade. There are four major component assemblies in modern wind turbines: the rotor, nacelle, tower, and balance of system. The rotor consists of blades used to harness wind energy and convert it into mechanical work, and a hub that supports the blades, research paper on renewable energy. In addition, most wind turbines have a pitch mechanism to rotate and change the angle of the blades based on the wind speed as described above.

The nacelle is the structure that contains, encloses, and supports the components that convert mechanical work into electricity. These components include generators, gearboxes, and control electronics, research paper on renewable energy. The tower supports the rotor and nacelle, and raises them to a height where higher wind speeds maximize energy extraction.

Additional balance-of-station components at ground height are required to gather, control, and transmit power to the grid interconnection. Bosik There is no single component that dominates turbine cost, though, research paper on renewable energy, the rotor is usually the highest cost item on the turbine and must also be the most reliable. Towers are normally the heaviest component and weight reductions would benefit the price and performance, but lightening the rotor or tower-top weight has a multiplier effect throughout the system including the foundation.

Gallagher He research paper on renewable energy that when selenium was exposed to sun a small electrical current was created. In Edward Weston received the first U.

The US government took a keen interest in the technology for use in the space program, and funded PV developments for that purpose, research paper on renewable energy. Sorenson9; PerlinThroughout the s solar research was funded by governments and in research labs, mostly for applications in the space industry for satellites and space-based vehicles. Image 1 below shows the solar installation on the White House roof during the Carter Administration, research paper on renewable energy.

Is there any information on the IP policy in force by then? Or all the results were patented? If patented do we have numbers or examples?

Bradford It was discovered that only one of the 14 was fully funded by the private sector, and 9 of the remaining 13 were financed with public funding, while the other 3 were developed in public-private partnerships. The researchers assumed that the innovations for which they could not identify funding sources were developed in the private sector.

Norbeg-Bohm Over the last twenty years, the market for solar technology has grown in foreign countries while still moving slowly in the US. Other countries - especially Japan and Germany - have taken the lead in technology development and installation of solar technology.

Solar is still an expensive technology with a small but growing global market share. Countries such as Spain and Germany have used generous renewable energy subsidy programs - referred to in this paper as demand-pull policies - to rapidly install massive amounts of solar PV technology, research paper on renewable energy. China, while a leading producer of solar PV technology as shown in Figure 3has only recently begun to implement solar PV subsidy programs that will help to encourage the adoption of the technology on a larger scale.

Gipe1 Figure 3 shows a comparison of the countries with the top production share and the countries with the most installed PV capacity, while Figure 4 shows the percentage of PV cell and module production in IEA countries excludes China. Overall, the trend has been to increase attention to manufacturing issues and to increase public-private partnerships, including growth in the level of private sector cost sharing.

There are a few different types of Solar PV technologies, which vary in cost and efficiency.

 

Alternative Energy/Paper - Commons Based Research

 

research paper on renewable energy

 

Renewable Energy Sources research papers delve into the energy sources used to replace conventional fuels to cut down on carbon emissions that affect the earth's climate. Research papers on renewable energy sources explicate the environmental issue of renewable energy. Paper Masters can custom write research on renewable energy for science or. Mar 29,  · Useful sample research proposal about Renewable Energy online. Free research proposal paper example on Renewable Energy for PhD and Master's degree. Read tips how to write a good research project. A Review of Renewable Energy Supply and Energy Efficiency Technologies. Shahrouz Abolhosseini. TEMEP, Seoul National University. Almas Heshmati Sogang University, Jönköping University and IZA Jörn Altmann TEMEP, Seoul National University Discussion Paper No. April IZA. P.O. Box Bonn. Germany. Phone: +Cited by: 8.